Economic theories in history state that land rental market plays a very important role in allocating resources efficiently among rural households. A well-functioned land rental market gives aid to the poverty reduction in rural areas.Since 1978's economic reform,eastern provinces in China benefited a lot from the dramatic economic development. The land rental market there has developed quite fast. But how about the western China where most of the agriculture land and farmers belong to?Based on a 44,000 rural household survey in 11 provinces in 2004, this paper provides a general picture of land rental market and the related issues in western China. After analyzing the determinants of the land rental market from both the supply and demand sides, it tries to look into labor mobility, market distance and land right s impact on the land rental market. Three assertions concerning the land rental activities were tested by the empirical evidences.