This thesis is based on a multisited fieldwork in Ecuador, January-June 2011. Ecuador is preparing for REDD, a UN- project to reduce emissions from deforestation, but already conducts forest conservation in many places through PSB. These programs may have a major impact on the target groups, who are often indigenous peoples. The focus is on the dilemmas taking place in the nexus between the people of the rainforest and the people from the outside promoting conservation of the rainforest. Experiences from two different indigenous villages, one Secoya and one Shuar in the Amazon, tell a story of suppression, social change, unstable relationships and discrimination, but also glimpses of hope, strategic actions and choices coming from agency and empowerment. In the process of participation in such projects they are faced with problems of limited information, hastily made decisions and conflicting interests and opinions among the villagers. The money they will receive by joining is a great temptation, but the restrictions in self-determination of land-use implied have consequences. A comparative analysis of the two communities may shed some light on why the Shuar chose to participate in PSB, while the Secoya declined. Furthermore, the discourses concerning conservation, development and indigenous peoples, by the myriad of actors, such as environmental NGOs, indigenous organizations, the state and the UN, involved in the implementations, or as critical observers, is of vital relevance in this context.