"THE EMERGENCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A WELFARE STATE IN NORWAY AS ASSOCIATED WITH THE LABOUR PARTYOR GOVERNMENT(S) AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR"We agree that the objectives of the Norwegian welfare state are numerous, but one of its objectives is to provide jobs to everyone capable of working, because one of Norway's overriding political objectives is to maintain full employment and settlement throughout the country. In addition to provision of jobs, it aims at providing security for unemployed, the sick, the aged and solving societal problems surrounding working life, as well it aims at managing the Nation's economy in an effective proper manner. Its other main goals are: to achieve even distribution of employment opportunities, resources and income throughout the society, to equalise income for different types of groups or types of productive regions and to encourage argricultural endeavours by providing farms with welfare and relief schemes, to eliminate poverty and misery and to secure a longlife, middle class standard of living for all and to increase economic equality in society.Like other Nordic countries, the special characteristics of the Norwegian welfare state are as follows: The Norwegian welfare state is a typical kind of comprehensive model, because it is based on universalistic principles. It benefits or covers all the Norwegian citizens, the working-class, ordinary people and middle class as well, for example, child allowance to every family irrespective of household income. On the other hand, all categories of the population are incorporated in the welfare arrangements. It is not based on the previous contributions or mean-test basis. Being a Norwegian citizen is the major requirement for the delivering of the services and welfare goods. It means that Norwegian citizens are automatically secured if they are sick, unemployed, disabled and they are automatically supported during their old age. There is free entrance to medical treatment to everyone independent of one's living place and ability to pay. In this sense, the relationship between the individuals' paying ability and access to the welfare goods is greatly broken. Another important feature of the Norwegian welfare state is that cash support from the National security system (folktrygden) is based on one's income, that is, in relation to one's salary in the labour market. Furthermore, the public sector is responsible for the social welfare goods or services. These services are being delivered by the communes and state or private organisations that receive public aids under strict public control. There is always a political struggle to stop the development in the commercialisation of these public goods that the public delivers. Like other Scandinavian countries, industrial workers and farmers were incorporated in the social security system from the start, because they were also politically included in development of the industrial society through the earlier accomplishment of the voting rights and parliamentary representations, which in turn weakened the idea of class or group-based arrangement. The universal principle is not only a product of the Second World War or the Beveridge-report irrespective of its impact on provoking political debate and an understanding about the welfare state in Norway after the war.With the incorporation of the so called superannuation schemes (tilleggspensjon) there has been a modification in the Norwegian social assistance for the old age security from 1959 and 1967 which is based on one's income i.e. an earnings-related pension scheme. This new system deviates Norway a little from its initial universalistic principle.We have knowledged the efforts of the Labour Party. But we have found out that the Labour Party factor alone is not sufficient in explaining the emergence and the development of a welfare state in Norway after the Second World War and onwards. We believe that in order to understand and explain the emergence or development of a welfare state in Norway, we must look for a long range of explanatory factors, but some key important factors are: consensual politics which is expressed in a common programme presented and adhered to by all the key political parties after the war. Depressions and the Second World Wars' experiences contributed to the idea of proper planning of the society in which a welfare state was included. Despite the major contributions of the Labour, we admit that the efforts of the non-socialists parties are important in this process. We meant that economic growth due to the North-Sea Oil production is another essential factor in understanding the development of the Norwegian welfare state. Internationally, we have observed that Swedish, Danish, British and German factors are all important in explaining and understanding the Norwegian Welfare State's emergence and development.Historically, we agree that Norwegian National ways of life and traditions which are incorporated in the Norwegian culture will help us as well. We admit that democratisation and new industries accompanied with new problems in turn encouraged the introduction and the development of the welfare policy or policies to meet with these new problems. However, we did not ignore the importance of massive support from the public and mass media in encouraging and presenting the social issues to the public.