AbstractThis thesis is a case study of the Temporary International Presence in the City of Hebron (TIPH). TIPH is a non-UN, multilateral observer mission, first established in 1994, and continually operating since May 1996. Being the only city in the West Bank where Israeli civilians have settled in the very centre, Hebron has been ridden by unparalleled violence, and became the only city so far to host an international presence with an explicit, if somewhat unusual, peacekeeping mandate.
The focal question is whether and how TIPH has affected the security of the local Palestinian population. In a wider perspective, the aim is to contribute to the cumulative understanding of violent conflict, thereby strengthening the theoretical basis for third-party intervention in general - and unarmed observation in particular.
The first half of the thesis consists of a reformulation of the main question into several manageable hypotheses, whereas the second half is a condensation of the findings into one overall answer. Initially, the city of Hebron is introduced in its legal, religious, economic, demographic, and humanitarian aspects. A brief historical review of the TIPH missions is given, before the reader is provided with the tools of analysis and a description of the methods used. The main section is devoted to a description of TIPH in its institutional context, followed by a synthesis of the theoretical and empirical material in the analysis chapter.
Based on qualitative and quantitative data, I conclude that TIPH enhances the security of Palestinians in Hebron, particularly in times of crisis. TIPH has influenced the Israeli security forces, primarily the army, but it has not measurably affected the conduct of the settlers as a group. The pathways of influence have varied over time, as the breakdown of the official co-operative organs of the Hebron regime has led to compensatory reliance on indirect pressure through diplomatic channels.