The phylogenetic relationship in Geoglossaceae ss. lato (Geoglossum Pers., Trichoglossum Boud., Microglossum Gillet., Cudonia Fr., Spathularia Pers., Mitrula Fr. and Bryoglossum Redhead), as proposed by Nannfeldt (1942) and Ohenoja (2000), was investigated by applying sequences of rDNA, including ITS and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA into phylogenetic methods. The phylogenetic methods used in this study were Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analysis with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. In the light of the obtained molecular phylogenies, the evolution of morphological characters was analyzed and evaluated. Our data show that the molecular phylogeny of Geoglossaceae ss. lato. is inconsistent with the classification system of Nannfeldt and Ohenoja. The results demonstrate that Geoglossum together with the genera Trichoglossum and Sarcoleotia constitute the family Geoglossaceae ss. stricto. Phylogenetic analyses in this study show that the close relationship between Geoglossum and Microglossum based on morphology is artificial. Microglossum should no longer be included in the family Geoglossaceae, but better be re-moved to Leotiaceae. As suggested by earlier studies, there is a close relationship between Cudonia and Spathularia, which should be excluded from the Geoglossaceae. Our study shows that the set of morphological characters used to circumscribe Geoglossaceae ss. lato. have to be abandoned and a new set of morphological characters have to be considered in the delimitation of the family.