The delimitation of the genera Anthericum and Chlorophytum has up to now been based on morphological and cytological data. In this study I discuss previous generic delimitations based on DNA sequence data from European and African species. Samples were sequenced for the chloroplast trnL-F spacer and for the nuclear ITS1 region. The results from the combined molecular analyses show that the European Anthericum species is the sister clade to a group consisting of African species of Anthericum and Chlorophytum. The species previously referred to Anthericum, but now in Chlorophytum, form one monophyletic group. A group of species that previously were referred to Dasystachys form a clade nested within Chlorophytum. The species that always have been referred to Chlorophytum, form three main clades in addition to the Dasystachys clade. One clade contains many rainforest species, and x = 7 is a common basic chromosom number within this clade. The second clade comprises plants characterised by having very thick roots combined with a richly branched inflorescence. They all have the chromosome number x = 8. The third clade consists of plants with distichous leaf arrangement. Within this group we find C. alismaefolium, which is a typical rainforest species. This suggests that the rainforest taxa have evolved more than once. There are also indications that the basic number x = 7 is derived from x = 8, and that this might have happened more than once. My conclusion, regarding generic delimitation, is that the delimitation suggested by Kativu and Nordal (1993), based mainly on morphological data, can be supported, even if the genus Anthericum is paraphyletic. Within the study material there are probably at least four species to be described. In addition nine species new to regions within the Flora Zambesiaca area have been recorded.