The chief purpose of this paper is to formulate and partly analyze a new mathematical model for continuous sedimentation-consolidation processes of flocculated suspensions in clarifier-thickener units. This model appears in two variants for cylindrical and variable cross-sectional area units, respectively (Models 1 and 2). In both cases, the governing equation is a scalar, strongly degenerate parabolic equation in which both the convective and diffusion fluxes depend on parameters that are discontinuous functions of the depth variable. The initial-value problem for this equation is analyzed for Model 1. We introduce a simple finite-difference scheme and prove its convergence to a weak solution that satisfies an entropy condition. A limited analysis of steady states as desired stationary modes of operation is performed. Numerical examples illustrate that the model realistically describes the dynamics of flocculated suspensions in clarifier-thickeners.